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Monday, 25 June 2018

COLLOQUIA ANTIQUA - Supplements to the Journal Ancient West & East volume publication for the MA in Black Sea and Eastern Med Studies

COLLOQUIA ANTIQUA Supplements to the Journal Ancient West & East:
Essays on the Archaeology and Ancient History of the Black Sea Littoral,

Edited by Manolis Manoledakis, Gocha R. Tsetskhladze and Ioannis Xydopoulos

Series Editor’s Introduction

This volume is dedicated to aspects of the Black Sea. It demonstrates how much work has been done in this region and the continuing vitality of Black Sea Studies. We begin at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, when the enigmatic Cimmerians allegedly occupied the northern Black Sea littoral and the steppes of the hinterland: not much is known about them, but one contribution here examines what ancient authors had to say. The same author also considers the terms Thrace and Thracians in the Greek historiography of the 6th–4th centuries BC. The local population of the southern Black Sea is examined in one contribution, and the Greek presence on the southern Black Sea littoral extensively, using archaeology and literary evidence, in another. In a further essay, the Taurians, one of the local peoples of the northern Black Sea, are brought out of the shadows. The economy of that region is viewed through the lens of Kerkinitis. And broadening the focus, religious experience as recorded in epigraphic sources is not forgotten either. A welcome feature of the collection is the various survey pieces on recent archaeological investigations and publications on all of the sea’s four shores.

The initial plan for this volume was to create a textbook for students, especially for those at the International Hellenic University in Thessaloniki who were participating in its MA programme on the Black Sea and the eastern Mediterranean. Not all of the chapters originally commissioned were submitted, some had to be rejected, some were revised, yet it was clear that many were too academic to serve this original purpose. Moreover, they did not cover all aspects of the ancient Black Sea. Hence, the volume was refocussed, and its present title aptly and more accurately describes it: a number of essays offering coverage of various facets and several parts of the Black Sea, but denying any claim to comprehensiveness or completeness. The International Hellenic University has financed the project. We are grateful to it, particularly its President, Prof. Costas Th. Grammenos, for this welcome support. Manolis Manoledakis of the International Hellenic University has taken the lead in the project from the beginning and has successfully navigated it to harbour. As ever, thank go to our publishers Peeters, especially Bert Verrept, for their help. I am most grateful to James Hargrave for his assistance with copy-editing and indexing.
Gocha R. Tsetskhladze
Llandrindod Wells
May 2017


Foreword by the President of the International Hellenic University
The present volume belongs to the research and educational activity of the International Hellenic University on the Black Sea littoral, especially in antiquity. There is no doubt that the Black Sea has been an area with continuously increasing importance during the last decades. After the end of the Cold War, scholars from all over the world have been showing a great interest in the archaeology and the ancient history of the Black Sea, an interest that has resulted in many joint research programmes, excavations, conferences, as well as publications. Being aware of this situation, and realising that there has never been an educational programme in any university totally dedicated to the Black Sea, the School of Humanities of our University decided to launch in 2010 the ‘MA in Black Sea Cultural Studies’, the first postgraduate programme worldwide examining the Black Sea littoral exclusively and in an interdisciplinary way. The courses offered include archaeology, history of all periods, ancient, mediaeval and modern art, religion, ethnography, politics, international relations as well as economic issues. After six successful years, we have chosen to broaden the geographic horizon of our programme’s subject matter and offer it from now on as the ‘ MA in Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean Studies’ .
Within the frame of this Master’s programme we have until now welcomed students from 14 countries, invited some of the world’s top specialist scholars on the issues examined to give lectures, and organised two international workshops on ‘the Black Sea in Antiquity’, accompanied by the publication of their proceedings, as well as several other conferences and events. It is within the same frame that we decided to create and fund this volume, which includes contributions by members of our academic staff – tenured, visiting and honorary – and of some other highly distinguished scholars of the Black Sea in antiquity. We aim at creating a valuable book, not only for our students, but also for any scholar of the subject. It is with great pleasure that I invite you to read this collection of essays on the archaeology and ancient history of the Black Sea littoral, hoping that you will find them useful for your studies and stimulating for further academic discussion on the issues presented.
Prof. Costas Th. Grammenos, CBE, DSc
President, International Hellenic University
Cass Business School, City, University of London


Introduction
The volume Essays on the Archaeology and Ancient History of the Black Sea Littoral may, on the one hand, be considered the product of the efforts of the International Hellenic University’s School of Humanities to establish Black Sea studies as a significant subject at the University, something undoubtedly well deserved. On the other hand, it is the outcome of the long experience of scholars who have dedicated their careers to the study of Black Sea archaeology and ancient history and who willingly accepted invitations to contribute to this effort. Thanks to this, the volume turned out to be something more than a simple textbook for our postgraduate students, which had been its initial purpose. Several aspects of life in the Black Sea during antiquity, as well as the results of the archaeological investigation in all its four coasts, are examined in the book. In his introductory chapter Gocha Tsetskhladze gives an overview of the historical and archaeological research that has been carried out during the last 20 years, at an increasing tempo and with many interesting results, while continuing his focus on Greek colonisation. Two of the most important peoples that inhabited the northern and the western Black Sea littorals, the Cimmerians and the Thracians, are examined by Ioannis Xydopoulos, in terms of their perception by the Greeks, as it is reflected in the works of the ancient Greek historians. The image of the ‘barbarian other’ is one of the most important issues that the author examines. We then move to the southern Black Sea coast, starting with an overview of archaeological research there, which is given by one of the most experienced archaeologists of the region, Sümer Atasoy. He also examines the relationship between local societies and those in mainland Anatolia and other regions surrounding the Black Sea and the resulting patterns of cultural influence and connectivity through time. The various peoples that dwelt on this coast are the subject of the next chapter, in which Manolis Manoledakis attempts, in the absence of any archaeological evidence, to collect the information about them available in written sources. The same author deals with the outset of the Greek presence in the southern Black Sea in the next chapter. Questions such as when, why and how the Greeks first arrived in the region are asked, while the answers are sought in both the literary and archaeological evidence at our disposal. Other issues, such as who were the first Greek settlers, why (and how) the local peoples accepted the Greeks, the importance of the economic factor in colonisation and the related terminology of colonisation are put under thorough criticism. The seventh chapter, written by Iulian Bîrzescu, offers an overview of the ancient history and archaeology of the western Black Sea littoral. Since the information found in literary sources is scarce, the reconstruction of the historical development, especially the details of the development of the cities, are derived mostly from archaeological excavations. Another important area presented in this paper deals with cult practices and local sanctuaries, since it has produced interesting results in the last decade. As we continue clock-wise, we move to the northern Black Sea coast. Ewdoksia Papuci-Władyka gives an overview of the main results of archaeological research there over the last 15 years, and outlines the problems posed and the outlook for further investigation. A perusal of the literature and a glance at the results coming from the many sites located on the northern coast of the Black Sea demonstrate that the scale of development of research is currently massive, although it is naturally not spread equally across all regions and fields of study. In the next chapter, Igor Khrapunov presents the geography and the customs of the Taurians, and adds some brief description of their perception as barbarians in the later Graeco-Roman authors. We stay in the Taurian Peninsula and examine the economy of the area, focusing mainly on one of its most important ancient cities, Kerkinitis. Tatiana Smekalova and Vadim Kutaisov discuss the main stages of the establishment and evolution of the regional economy and provide an exhaustive study of areas such as agriculture, palaeobotany, cultivation and harvesting, crop rotation, vine production and palaeozoology. The eleventh chapter, written by Angelos Chaniotis, brings us to the world of religion, which is very familiar to the author. He attempts to contribute to the study of religion in the west and north shores of the Black Sea by addressing precisely the neglected aspects of experience and emotion. Chaniotis seeks to reach his goal by exploiting the epigraphic evidence and by presenting a small selection of case studies. The ‘journey’ of this volume finishes in the east, on the Colchian Black Sea coast. Having deep knowledge of the area, Tsetskhladze offers a survey of recent discoveries and studies on it. The editors of this volume are extremely grateful to Prof. Emerita Stella Drougou, the first Dean of the School of Humanities of the International Hellenic University, who dedicated a lot of time and effort to set up the School, and encouraged both the creation of the volume and its funding by the University. Finally, we warmly thank the Governing Board of the University, for their immediate and sincere decision to generously fund this publication.
On behalf of the editors,
Manolis Manoledakis
International Hellenic University

COLLOQUIA ANTIQUA

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